Gothic architecture — the period of development of Western European and Central European architecture, appropriate Mature and late middle Ages (late twelfth to early sixteenth century). Gothic architecture replaced the Romanesque architecture of the era and in turn gave way to the architecture of the Renaissance period .
In the second half of the tenth century came to an end the debilitating forces of Europe it is time for military confrontation with the Normans and the Magyars. France resumed the construction of abbeys and monasteries, serving in the main centers of knowledge and education.
Romanesque and Gothic architecture was impossible without architectural predecessors ‘ experience and their accumulated mathematical knowledge. The geometrical proportions prevailed thanks to the authority of scholars of Arabic Spain and of the ancient mathematicians, whose works are actively translated in medieval France. The geometry of the imaginations of medieval artists as a universal means of understanding and modelling the universe. Continue reading
Amazing and diverse Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia. This specific region is different from the rest of Spain has its own culture and amazing scenic landscapes. But Barcelona is a city so original, that even in the Catalonia’t find the other city. Their appearance, which so distinguishes the city from other, Barcelona are indebted to the genius of the architect Gaudi, which has completely transformed it, creating its fabulous buildings.
The history of Barcelona is very ancient, and according to one legend, this city of ancient Rome – the eternal city. It is believed that it was founded by one of the greatest heroes of antiquity, Hercules. And on the second version of Barcelona was rebuilt by the Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca, who was the father of the famous Hannibal. Continue reading
1. The inventory of artificial caves and underground architectural structures for the CIS and Baltic States (former USSR).
Russian Society Spelestological Research (ROSI) is working on the Inventory of artificial caves and underground architectural constructions on the territory of CIS and Baltic States (former USSR).
The idea of the Cadastre belongs to M. Y. Cochino. The ideology inventory was developed and added to it Dolotov, Y. A., M. U. Sokhin, A. A. Parfenov (working Group of the Inventory). The development of computer databases has made J. A. Dolotov.
Materials for Cadastre also provided: N.E. Pudovkin (Samara), K. K. Pronin, L. N. The wind, Acting Greek (Odessa), A. G. Kovalev (Kharkov), A. Bobrovsky (Kiev), and other SPELESTOLOGY. Currently information is collected about 2500 objects. Continue reading