The Windows were inserted colored glass, depicting saints and scenes from sacred history, legends, emblems and patterns. Glasses these kind of mosaic, made of carved according to the requirements of the pattern pieces, connected together by lead strips.
The inside of Gothic churches in regard to the beauty and sublimity not inferior to their physical appearance. High space ships, visible one after the other, slender pilasters, patterned on triforia, huge Windows with curly weaves — it all makes a big impression. Lancet arc vast arches supported or not on a square massive pillars and pilasters of slender from the bundles of thin columns. Originally the pilasters were thick cylinders made of pieces of stone lying horizontally on each other; but then, for these pieces do not slide one with the other and better endured the pressure of the arches, as well as for beauty, invented to furnish pilasters with thin columns of stone monoliths, in the amount of eight: four, thicker and called “senior service columns” (alte Dienste) were placed crosswise around the pilasters; in the intervals between them were placed four more slim or “Junior service” column ( Junge Dienste). This new form of pillars connects the separate parts under the General column. The introduction of naturalistic interpreted ListView medieval ornamentation is one of the major innovations of Gothic style. Thus the imitation of nature, favoured grass and the kidneys.
The system of building churches was greatly modified, depending on the epoch, country and material (ashlar or brick). From the Gothic buildings of religious character the most important: the town hall, exchange, Guild houses and other buildings. Secular Gothic buildings have borrowed, both constructive and decorative elements from the Church architecture. Generally these structures are long facade rising above the middle of the high tower (beffroi), with small turrets, Baldinini or groups of phials on the corners, and with the wide and high main facade in the form of high arches.
3. Buildings and architectural complexes
Features of Gothic architecture has been described already some Romanesque churches – the earliest Romanesque example in which, essentially, has already developed a constructive system of Gothic, the Cathedral in Durham (England, 1093-1140 years) with three naves, covered by a pointed ribbed vaults in the coupled system, and hidden under the roof flying buttresses that transmit the efforts of spreading over the aisles the buttresses. However, the heyday of the Gothic was associated primarily with the architecture of France.
An outstanding monument of early Gothic architecture was the Cathedral of Notre Dame . construction began in 1163 and was completed by the middle of the XIV century, its Grand Cathedral (length 129 m, the height of the middle nave 32.5 m, the towers are 69 m) inside a dissected cross ribbed vaults in the coupled system with an open gallery over the side aisles. The lower level has thick Alla Romana undifferentiated posts. On the facades of answer him the massive walls to the buttresses. The features of the Gothic to a much greater extent manifested in the plastic upper part of the composition with a strong carcass and huge Windows fill. The design of the buttresses with the flying buttresses is a leading architectural theme of the side facades. On the main (Western) facade along with the rich plasticity typically Gothic (Lancet mnogostupenchataya shapes of openings, the delicacy and sculptural elements, predominance in the details of vertical articulation, developed round a window-rose, etc.) still strongly felt horizontal divisions, dominated by strict symmetry.
The Cathedral in Reims ( XIII century) – one of the most striking examples in which Gothic design combined with extremely rich plasticity. the dominant vertical divisions merge into a dynamic General flow, soaring aspirations of the masses. The main role along with the constructive elements of the designated system delicate plastics – filling the gaps, armaturam fill them with sculptures, turrets, etc. the Builders of the Cathedral of Reims refused on the layout plan used in the Paris Cathedral of the bound system, in which one travee middle of the nave correspond to two cells side of the nave, and consequently the buttresses accept unequal horizontal stress. They increased the vaults and gave them a highly pointed form, reducing this horizontal force.
The thrust is transferred to the buttresses flying buttresses bunk with a fairly steep line of ascent. The cross section of the buttresses is greatly reduced in comparison with the buttresses in Paris. Their slender pinnacles of completed forms was a consequence of the relative reduction of stresses in the arch and rationally arranged the construction of the flying buttresses.
Gothic architecture in different countries of Europe has received a specific interpretation in accordance with local building conditions and artistic traditions. Among the huge number of built cathedrals to Gothic architecture in Germany the characteristic of the Cathedral in Ulm (XII-XIII centuries) in Spain – Burgos Cathedral (XIII-XIV centuries), in the Czech Republic – St. Vitus Cathedral (XIV century).
However, a special place in the development of Gothic architecture is Italy. Gothic architecture in Italy was heavily refracted through the tradition of the original Italian Romanesque, formed under the influence of ancient architecture. In Church building the Gothic manifested itself mainly in the interior in the distribution of forms and pointed ribbed vault at the conservation of the Romanesque character of the facades. Civil buildings of Italy the Gothic had an even smaller impact. Gothic forms here interacted with the Byzantine and Arab-Muslim traditions.
The main building of Venice – the Doge’s Palace (XIV-XV centuries), an outstanding example of the Palace buildings, built with Gothic motifs.
By the XIV century the old Palace had become dilapidated and almost came into disrepair, so in 1309 (S. Doge Ziani), the Venetians began to build the new building of the Palace, which was then completed and was extended until the XVI century. The works of many talented minds and hands had created this incomparable architectural structure. As if in mockery of all the laws of architecture of the upper massive part of the Doge’s Palace rests on a lightweight openwork arches. At first glance it seems that the building tilted Foundation up and roof down, so illogical the system itself is its facade: two ribbons weak support below and a high solid wall at the top.
At first it seems that all the architectural elements of the façade are linked somehow illogical, unexpectedly, as if by accident. But at the same time, everyone here is attractive, fresh and bright, full of life and joy, all artistically rich and ultimately reasonable. Open arcade gallery on the first floor – this is not a whim but a wonderful shelter from the southern sun. Gallery of the second floor’s balcony, shading from the South and West is relatively small official premises and acting as a convenient means of connection between them.
Gothic is an artistic style, which appeared to be the final stage in the development of the middle ages art in the Western, Central and partially Eastern Europe (between the mid-12th and 16th centuries). Gothic developed in countries dominated by the Catholic Church, and under the auspices of the feudal and ecclesiastical foundations remained in the ideology and culture of the Gothic era. Gothic art remained primarily a cult for the intended purpose and religious topics: it was correlated with eternity, with “higher” irrational forces.
The Gothic style gave a new appearance to medieval Europe. Her influence has been not only architecture but also painting, decorative arts, clothing. Almost everything had been marked by stylistic unity. Under the influence of Gothic was and book art, which reached its peak in XIII – XIV century. The Gothic era was a period of intensive development of secular culture. This is the time for the first time in history began to be cultivated the ideals of spiritual love, arose the lyric poetry and music. In the middle Ages actively developed the art of secular painting, which was mainly manifested in the portrait. But the first thing that comes to mind at the mention of Gothic, is a magnificent architecture of medieval Gothic cathedrals. Their incommensurable with the man the space, verticalism towers and arches, the subordination of sculpture to the rhythms of the dynamic architecture, multi-color glow of the stained glass Windows of untold have emotional impact. Therefore, the appearance of the Gothic style in the architecture of the middle ages can without hesitation be called one of the greatest discoveries in the history of architecture.