TOP 10 most famous cities of the Ancient world
After the collapse of the tribal relations, the population of the earth began to settle on completely different principle – territorial. Thus, the first towns began to be laid and constructed in the period of antiquity. Many of them survived to our times.
Cities with millennial history can surprise you much more than just beautiful architecture and unique artifacts. They are the fingerprints of previous eras and civilizations and they are a reflection of both positive and negative events of mankind. This city is full of amazing stories and legends and are the largest lures for experienced researchers. Let’s look at cities that are almost as old as the hills on which they were built.
1. Petra in Jordan
In the ancient city of Petra was the capital of the Hashemite state created by the Arab tribe. Find stone miracle in the desert near the resort of Aqaba.
To explore all its attractions will take about 4 hours, during which you will have to overcome the way in 10 km. The tour starts with the entrance of a narrow gorge, the output of which rest meets the building of the El-Khazneh.
The temple-mausoleum, and referred to as the Treasure of the pharaohs, gave the best skill of the stone-masons of antiquity.Followed by street with a Colonnade, an attractive red-pink buildings. On one of the rocks stands the monastery of ed Deir, attracts with its beauty Roman 3-storey Palace, catches the eye Urnova the tomb. Most of the buildings were intended for rituals.
2. Ancient Ephesus in Turkey
Was built by the Greeks in the IXth century BC For many years of its existence the ancient city was able to absorb the cultural heritage of many countries of the ancient world.
Even one visit to Ephesus to explore the many unique attractions, which annually attracts thousands of tourists. The fountain of Emperor Trajan, library of Celsus, the ruined temples of Artemis and Hadrian, the remains of the sanctuaries of the nymphs and conventional buildings, attractive unusual designs.
Surprisingly, a huge amphitheater built by the Greeks for entertainment, perfectly preserved to our days. Many changes undergone Ephesus throughout its history, but no events are unable to take away his beauty and wealth. Unusual city leaves a lasting memory.
3. Persepolis in Iran
Persepolis – a city landmark that reflects the luxury and grandeur of the ancient Persian Empire of the Achaemenids. In 330 BC it was burned great. Despite this, the city is still well preserved remains of the ancient Palace complex.
They are located on a high platform, and is 135 thousand square meters. Cultural “core” of Persepolis is upadana, or a giant square shaped room that can accommodate up to 10 thousand people.
Apadana stands on a 2.5-meter platform, and its walls made of durable material Adobe brick. Medieval Persepolis was used by the locals as a stone quarry. Since 1931 were held here archaeological work.
The columns of Persepolis are decorated with ancient images, some written by tourists who wished to leave a memory in the form of their own names.
Included in the list of New seven wonders of the world .
4. Baalbek in Lebanon
A temple-city, situated between the mountain ranges the Lebanon and anti-Lebanon mountains. He is shrouded in many legends that explain its appearance on Lebanese soil. Their name the city owes to Baal – deity, worshipped by the Egyptians and Assyrians.
Attractions are Baalbek temples, amazing for its architecture. Scientists still can’t understand how without using high-tech tools ancient people was able so smoothly to grind huge boulders and use them for construction.
Surprised the researchers of Lebanon and what is beneath the temple lies a system of underground passages. The width of this ancient maze is about 3 m, height – 2,5 m. Attractive for tourists and South stone Baalbek, climbing on which you can feel like a micro-particle of the vast Universe.
5. Palmyra (Tadmor) in Syria
Palmyra was an ancient Syrian city, first mentioned in the Chronicles of the nineteenth century BC the Small town of elliptical form decorated with 11-metre-high colonnade that connects the cult and shopping malls.
This colonnade is considered the main street of Palmyra. but when driving it you can see the arched branches, leading to neighbouring streets. The centre of the road is decorated with a triumphal arch, which, despite the dilapidated condition, still impresses with its grandeur. The street ends at the sanctuary of Belus, built in 32 BC after a local deity.
This temple was the main, and its territory was represented by a courtyard with pools. The Nabo temple, ruins of Roman baths, the amphitheatre, Senate, Agora, camp of Diocletian, Necropolis and fortress of qal’at Ibn Maan, are considered the main attractions of Palmyra.
6. Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka
The ancient capital of the island of Sri Lanka. Its main attraction is a Stone Church erected for the worship of the Buddha. 4 huge statues of deities carved in the granite rock. Especially attracts pilgrims Buddha statue, crossing his arms. The wealth of Polonnaruwa are numerous Brahmanic monuments, the ruins of the garden city of king Parakramabahu, the pool of Lotus lake Parakrama Samudra. A mysterious area in Polonnaruwa is recognized as the Cave of the Spirits of Knowledge, it is the same Gal Vihara. And this is not the usual underground Kingdom, and exposed stone wall with carved stone imposing Buddha statues, frozen in supine and standing posture. Today the ancient city is represented by the remains of palaces and temples enclosed in the rectangle city wall.
7. Chichen Itza in Mexico
Ancient Mexican city belonged to the people Itza. The name has an interesting translation – “the well Itza tribe”. Once in possession of hundreds of buildings, the city took approximately 6 square miles. Today it looks like the ruins, among them historical value are about 30 preserved buildings. Archaeologists refer Chichen Itza to the Mayan culture, because most of the buildings were erected by members of this tribe. Another group of ancient buildings and cenotes – a smooth-bore wells were constructed in the period of the Toltecs from X to XI century ad, But the most outstanding buildings are those which were built by the Maya tribe (at which time the city became the largest religious-ceremonial center). It is the House of Fallen, House of deer, the Red house, the Temple of the lintels, Church, monastery with outbuildings, Acab Jib.
8. Teotihuacan in Mexico
One of the unusual cities of ancient Mexico. It stretches on the edge of the valley of Anahuac in the treeless Alpine zone. The year of its Foundation is considered to be 750 which is relevant to our era. In Nahuatl the word “Teotihuacan” means the area where people turn into gods. Teotihuacan attractions in great variety. The city is rich in temples and palaces, with walls decorated with original frescoes. Its historic place is the Citadel is a square framed platforms with 16 pyramids. According to the researchers, it housed the Royal residence of the ruler of the ancient city. Inside the Citadel is hidden another attraction – pyramid of the Feathered Serpent. However, the pyramids of the Sun and moon in its grandeur and beauty has always been overshadowed by the mysterious monuments of Teotihuacan.
9. Machu Picchu in Peru
In ancient times belonged to the Incas, over time, became the center of tourism of the South American Peru. Built in the XV century in the mountains, and the name was appropriate – “old mountain” (the Quechua). News of the existence of particles of the Ancient world, lost in the Andes, was published in 1911 by the American Hiram Bingham. Marvelous Machu Picchu is also called the city in the clouds. Modern researchers its territory struck by the fact that at the founding of the city by the Incas were taken into account all the nuances of Geology, topography, ecology and astronomy. All buildings, with unusual triangular roofs, are situated on natural slopes, but they are built so that even in the event of an earthquake will not be affected. Since 2007, this wonderful city is listed in the registry of the New Wonders of the world. The artifacts exhibited in the Museum of the city of Cusco.
10. Leptis Magna in Libya
An ancient town founded by the Phoenicians in the VII century BC lying on the Mediterranean coast near the city of HOMS (Africa, Libya). Within 3 centuries it was subject to Carthage after the Second Punic war belonged to numidiytsam and then to the Romans. The peak of its prosperity comes at the end of II century BC, Today in the territory of the city you can find numerous Roman monuments: the ruins of the Baths of Hadrian, theatre, triumphal arch of Septim Sevres, Central hall with statues and mosaics, the ruins of the once luxurious villas decorated with mosaics, the Forum, semicircular Nymphaeum, Basilica. Outside the town are the amphitheater and the circus. Very interesting and the Roman Circle. The building, shaped like a horseshoe, is located on the East side of Leptis Magna.