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INDIA

India can be considered the third time a great civilization appeared on Earth (after Egypt and Mesopotamia ). But I immediately had to amend this statement, because in reality it is possible that it is the most ancient of civilizations, its study has just begun. As you probably already understood that civilization begin in the mouths of great rivers. In this case the Indus river (and the river luni, which is now lost in the Sands, and in those days formed a very powerful mouth and fell into the Indian ocean). And not only the Indus and the luni. This area is called Punjab – five rivers, once flowed here, three major rivers, from which there would be little.

By the way, the Indus was called actually Sindhu, but the Persians, from whom we learned about the existence of India, are unable to pronounce “with” in the beginning and started calling it “Hindu”. Greeks, taking the word from the Persians, and did cut it down to Indus.

The higher the river, the “newer” human settlements. So here are the latest findings of the Indian MARINE archaeologists (i.e. those who lead the excavations on the bottom of the ocean) showed that the most ancient parts of the first settlements went to the bottom of the sea. Hindus there is even an entire city, and it changes the start date of education of the cities of India or Arabskoi civilization (named after the Indus, of course, and found one of the cities).

Indian civilization has left us with another slojnostei study. Apparently, because of a General philosophical and religious reasons (like reincarnation, i.e. a continuous chain of rebirths of all living beings) India has not had its historians, and did not bother to historical records and keeping any records, despite existing own hieroglyphic writing. Here in China the case was delivered in a big way, and even diplomatic delegations to be accounted (in the records of today often learn about the world completely unknown to ancient lands and peoples). In Mesopotamia and Egypt, too, there was a set of documents. And India not only led them altogether.

But now we will talk about well-known truths. Indian civilization was located mainly in the region of what is now Pakistan and settled in the Indus river, which also formed the area for a possible high-yielding irrigated agriculture. North India system is limited to the greatest mountains on the planet – the Himalayas and the waste from these mountain ranges. To the West lie the foothills of the Himalayas and mountain deserts and semi-deserts. Next – the Iranian plateau (the area gradually decreases to Mesopotamian lowlands). From the East lie again mountain ranges, the height of which is significantly lower Himalayas, but the throughput is no better. Thus, India virtually cut off from the two closest neighbors – China and Mesopotamia. And it would be very bad if the situation did not save the sea. From the West the Indian subcontinent Arabian sea from the East – Bay of Bengal. However, the ocean most of the time remains very rapid, and this creates additional problems for navigation, but, nevertheless, it is a way to communicate with the East and the West. However, this is only my assumption. I would personally tried to create sea trade routes, and ancient people were not any stupider than me, this thought was to come to their heads. The South and North of the country is also divided by a chain of ranges (Vindhya – the largest of them), covered once in ancient times, impenetrable forests.

Despite the difficult geographical situation, there is a transition from North-Western part of India, which in ancient times took advantage of arias and farmers from Central Asia. Pre-Aryan tribes in India called Dravidians, and genetically they were close to the current Australian tribes. Aryans came from the North, from the mountains of the Hindu Kush, and took control of the entire territory of India in the middle of the 2nd Millennium BC, They destroyed the ancient city, and agriculture declined. Over time, the situation has leveled off and agriculture was revived again, however, in India was born of the unique social structure of the society – caste. There were four castes – Brahmans (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), viscii (farmers, merchants and artisans), shudras (people who had no property, and slaves). And – most importantly – the mixing of castes was forbidden. A privileged position took the caste of brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas.

Soil Indus was formed by alluvial silt with all the ensuing consequences. Already in the IV-th Millennium BC were agricultural settlements, and to III-mu – city. It is argued that in the East only rare wandering hunting tribes and reigned the stone age. But it is unclear then, where did the tin…

Exploration of the valley of the Ganges was hampered by the jungle. Only in the early first Millennium BC there began to grow the city (after he had mastered the smelting of iron), and so we’re not going to talk about him.

In the same Indus valley with the 20-ies of XX century were committed one after the other sensational findings, suggesting that there existed a civilization with cities, the bronze and the invention of their own writing. I must say that the Western world could not believe that this is so, and believed that the culture in India just brought from the outside in finished form. However, linguistic and historical analysis has proved the independence of Indian culture. Thus, it became known that already in VI, and possibly VII Millennium BC in the Indus valley there was agriculture, with several types. Cereals cultivated are wheat, barley, millet and plenty of vegetables. Cotton had been grown, and created cotton fabrics. Were domesticated ox and Buffalo, poultry.

In the cities was widely used burnt brick, various ceramics, developed weaving, bronzes, gold and silver. The Potter’s wheel was used here.

Moreover, in the cities of the Indus civilization found traces of cultures of earlier settlements. There is evidence about the relationship of this civilization even with Elam (those same neighbors-the thieves of Sumer), the Sumerians, Iran and southern Turkmenistan (city of Altyn-Tepe). It is known that the Indah often acted as intermediaries in the trade.

Quite by accident I came across a network on one interesting hypothesis made by Jonathan Sellers, that in the mouth of the Indus there was a full-fledged Sumerian settlement. I’m not going to actively comment on his hypothesis, just above you can see a map of the location of this settlement (as indicated by the dashed line and is called Edin).

The first two were found, the largest urban center of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa (often the whole civilization is called Harappan named last). The name of Mohenjo-Daro c Hindi translates as “hill of the Dead”, and it’s dubbed. True remains unknown. Later opened two more cities – Changhu-Daro and Kalibangan. In recent times excavations carried out in peripheral areas, in particular in the area of the city of Lothal, which, perhaps, was seaport (shipyard found associated channels with the river flowing into the Gulf of Cambay). Today it is believed that the Harappan culture originated in 2300-1700 BC Every civilization has something that it was a “most-most”. In particular, in India it was the city of Mohenjo-Daro – the largest city of the ancient world. It covered an area of 260 hectares, the town has a building area of 200 m2 (compare this to the current luxury apartments, whose area is about 150m2 and more).

Indus cities had a two-part plan. This meant that part of the city was built on an artificial hill that was the citadel, where there were temples and places of urban management (town halls, one word). There was also a pool for ritual ablutions and granaries. The second part – the settlement – had streets for the passage of wagons. Houses were often two storeys in height and a special room for washing, where dirty water in the settling. The cities ‘ water with ceramic pipes. The pipe ends were flanged to prevent leakage of water and sewage. The pipe joints were sealed with asphalt. In General, the sanitation in the Indus valley seems to be more advanced than in other countries.

It is difficult to say anything about the building Indus civilization, but it is obvious that there was a strong inequality between people, and it can be assumed that it was similar to the Mesopotamian.

India civilization has ceased to exist. It can be argued that it happened gradually. And as a result the nomads-Aryans (read more about Aryans can be found in other lectures) from the North-West. Some researchers suggest that in this area occurred one of the first environmental disasters. Deforestation and unsustainable management of irrigated agriculture has led to the onset of the deserts to the North and to the destruction of civilization that there was no one to maintain in sparsely populated then the Indus valley.

The continuation of this civilization was the civilization of the Aryan tribes that already was quickly developing weaving, Metalworking, and agriculture (by the way, silk and rice which were originally only in China, there also began to grow).

Well, what? Homework? )))

In search, as usual. What is known about the relationship Harrapa, Mohenjo-Daro and other cities of ancient India with the East and the West? (3 points)

Given that the findings of marine archaeology? (3 points)

The reasoning was agriculture and animal husbandry in India from Mesopotamia and Egypt (3 points)

Evidenced by such an elaborate sewer system? (1 point)

Two additional points a number of questions on reasoning.

And let’s you figure out what is there to speculate?

My deep gratitude to Gray for proofreading Panicle lectures.

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