Water, created by the slaves of Rome.
In the history of the development of water supply systems of Roman aqueducts have a special place. Their extant remains indicate not only the Majesty and power of Ancient Rome, but also about the ancient world to the highest level of development of engineering thought.
The largest city of the ancient (by modern estimates, in the period of the Empire its population was from 600 thousand to 2 million people), also located in the hills, could not have developed water supply system. In it there were 11 aqueducts. First is Appies, named in honour of directing this project censor, Appius Claudius, was built in 312 BC and had a length of over 16 kilometers. The second aqueduct, built 40 years later, had a length of 70 kilometers! Same size there was also a third, Marziev, water. The total length of the Roman aqueducts was 436 km, 55 km – bridge structures. They delivered to the city, famous for its fountains and baths (Terme), from 700 thousand to 1 million cubic meters of water per day (according to some estimates – up to 1.5 million cubic meters). Such a large consumption of water may seem prohibitive, but you need to keep in mind that the ancient Romans did not know of valves, and the water in the system flowed continuously, obespechivayut sewage.
Such discharges could not provide any known water-lifting facilities, so the water in the Roman aqueducts was received by gravity flow from natural springs, which had to find in the mountains (to provide elevation sufficient to supply water to the city located on the hills), sometimes tens of kilometers from the city. Technology of production of pipes in those days was in its infancy were famous for pottery and lead pipes . in some cases, used drilled stone blocks; of course, to provide them with the help of such great needs in the tubes was impossible. Therefore delivery of water built canals and chutes, and here the Roman architects showed miracles, demonstrating in-depth knowledge of mechanics and hydraulics and hydraulic structures creating striking for its huge size and high precision calculations. Contemporary research on the effectiveness of the ancient Roman aqueducts, including, in particular, computer simulation showed that the system set up 1.5-2 thousand years ago, completely correspond to the current standards.
We will celebrate the elegance of engineering solutions and high precision of their implementation during the construction of the Roman aqueducts. Recall that their creators used the Roman numbers that arose in the V century BC and is extremely inconvenient for calculations. All calculations were performed with the help of counting boards and pebbles (hence the “calculation” — from lat. calculi, stones).
Aqueducts were built not only in Rome but in other cities of the Roman Empire. Their remains can be found in Italy, Spain, France, Turkey. Some of them provide a fairly complete picture about the structure and characteristics of ancient Roman aqueducts.