The first Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Martin in Utrecht was built in the VI century. Where exactly was located in the city’s Cathedral, is unknown, and he was quickly destroyed in the wars. Several buildings have succeeded each other before in the XII century began the construction of the present St. Martin’s Cathedral – the Duomo. Cathedral Domkerk (Domkerk) in Utrecht was, probably, quite majestic, if there was a full. But one tower (1382, height 110 m) very powerfully above the city flies, specifically rises and forms the image of the city.
Dome Cathedral of St. Martin in the city of Utrecht is one of the Gothic cathedrals of the Netherlands. First built choruses, and for those over 60 years – the famous tower. The tower became the symbol of the city.
To the top (465 steps) you can climb, to see 50 of the bells (the largest Carillon of Europe, made by Hemony in the XVII century, the largest bell was 9.8 tonnes and a diameter of 2.7 m), and the top in good weather and with binoculars to see one side of the roof of the Amsterdam Arena and the bell tower of ‘ s-Hertogenbosch! That is, consider, to see half of the Netherlands. Gothic tower seems easy, rising to the sky. However, under the its apex it carries 32,000 kg – that heavy bell of the Cathedral. The largest of the bells is called El Salvador, and 14 all together – the biggest in the Netherlands, the group of medieval bells.Bell, by the way, calling every 15 minutes on Saturdays, arranged a Carillon concert.
The nave of the Church, were not so fortunate: he never was thoroughly rebuilt. In its place was poorly fortified temporary structure, which pushed the storm of 1674. Though evil tongues claimed that it was symbolic of the end of Christianity in the ocean of godlessness Dutch Golden XVII century. Since then, the high tower of the Cathedral stood separate from the choirs. In General, the Cathedral was built in 1254 to 1517, and in its heyday was a two-tower Gothic classics like the Paris Notre Dame. The damages were finally removed only in 1826. The Emperor Napoleon in 1811, divided the property of the Church and gave the tower to the jurisdiction of the city. In 2004 alone, built from the forests of imitation of the nave of the Church.
Even unfinished, the Duomo was the most beautiful Church of the Netherlands. It is the only Cathedral in the Netherlands, entirely following the examples of French Gothic. Other Gothic buildings – the variations of local understanding of Gothic architecture.
The Cathedral played an important role in the relations of Utrecht with the Vatican. The Pope has always been considered honorable have of the Cathedral. Originally, the Cathedral was Catholic, but in 1580 he was handed over to the Protestants. And only in the brief period of the French conquest of the Netherlands in the Cathedral sounded again Catholic service.
Near the Cathedral there is a small garden which was once uygulamali bishops. Interestingly, at the entrance to the garden stands a granite boulder with runic inscriptions rather, it is the traces of the Vikings IX-X centuries. And in the garden there is a fountain and a bronze statue of a monk writing a book it is a 1913. The Cathedral arcade is connected with the building of the former monastery, now the main building of Utrecht University (Academiegebouw). The building is noteworthy because here in 1579, was concluded the Union of the Protestant provinces against the Spaniards.
Near the Cathedral a typical medieval square lined with typical houses of the XVII century, very beautiful. Not the most beautiful, but iconic house called the Pope’s house (Paushuis). The fact is that not just anywhere, but was born in Utrecht is the only Dutch who occupied the throne of the Vatican and the last non-Italian Pope (well, except for the current and previous German pole, who only recently broke a 450-year tradition), and his name was Adrian Florence. The throne he occupied, however, only 21 months (from 9 January 1522 to 14 September 1523). And there were persistent rumours that he was poisoned. And the Pope’s house in Utrecht and was abandoned, now there is a facility for the registration of marriages (like the Russian registry office).
Very close to the Duomo Church Pieterskerk (Pieterskerk), otherwise known as the Walloon Church. The structure is very ancient (1048), respectively, of the Romanesque style. If you go along the canal Drift (Drift Gracht) to the North, then there will be more and Janskerk (Janskerk), it is about the same and the same age, but remained worse On Saturdays near the Church is the flower market (towards evening), there are plenty of cafes and several buildings of Utrecht University. In the picturesque bend of the outer channel Bolverk Lucas (Lucas Boiwerk) stands the building of the city theatre, known for the glass bell, kotors hanging right at the top of the tower. In the evenings, the building has a red light. It can be observed, riding the buses 3 and 4 in the Eastern part of the city.