What is archaeology and why is it necessary?
The word “archaeology” of Greek origin, like the origin of the names of many other Sciences (history, geography, Geology). It consists of two words – arhayos (ancient) and -logos (word, story). Leaves – the story of ancient times. For a long time archeology and understand the science of antiquity, that which is not available written history.
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Archaeologists dig up remains of ancient cities, villages, graves, find ancient things, the traces of rites of burial, evidence of unit of defensive walls of the ancient city, clay and metal utensils, weapons, works of art. Them they judge how and what people lived in the past. Thus, archaeology helps RNATI about the past of mankind. Who we are, why live? This is also the questions of archaeology.
The value found by archaeologists of the subject is determined not by the material from which it is made, and the historical information that this item contains. Clay pot with ancient writing or a piece of villanously animal with unknown ancient inscriptions much more valuable to science than was found an ingot of precious metal. Yeah, he’s too valuable, but that value is different, far from a science. Ingot us a little that can tell about the past, and therefore both historical and archaeological value, he has not.
Broken pottery, fragments of craft tools long interested archaeologists. What in them interesting? Whether it is the Golden bowl! Attitude towards archaeology is gradually beginning to change from the eighteenth century and especially with HGH B. Archaeologists have learned that often simple, plain items like pots moulded carry historical information. Should only be able to get it. Archaeology gradually ceased to be kladoiskatelskih science. It became clear that what matters is not only the thing itself, but the circumstances of its discovery: it was there in the grave; who was dead – a man, woman or child; how to position the skeletons; where the thing was found and what else was in the grave. And a lot of other issues. There is a need for the compilation of excavation drawings, photos (after all, archaeologists, mining information, destroy an archaeological site, be it the village or the grave). It was necessary to collect not only items of interest to raskopin, but also others whose appointment he does not understand, but perhaps it will be clear later, when we worked on them specialists.
Over time, the archaeologists appeared science-assistants – antropologia (the science of the structure of the human skeleton), paleozoology (the science about prehistoric animals), paleo-botany (the science of ancient plants), paleogeography (the science of ancient geography), Ethnology (science of peoples), Geology (science of earth crust), fire (the science of the traces left on ancient instruments while using them), and others. Received archaeological information became more truthfulness, closeness to reality.