UK attractions: Gothic architecture
The Gothic style appeared in the second half of the 12th century in Western and Central Europe, where the dominant Catholic religion. The term was introduced during the Renaissance, to contrast the “Gothic” i.e. barbarian art, samples of classical Roman and Greek architecture, which was then considered the ideal. Mostly Gothic style was used in the cult, religious buildings, chief among which was the cathedrals. The Gothic style was the epitome of the feudal structure of the world, emphasizing the insignificance of man before the omnipotence of God, the king, the Lord.
The space of the Cathedral filled with colourful reflections of light passing through the huge stained glass Windows, tall columns, sculptures, paintings on biblical themes — all aimed at emotional turmoil of believers.
Building cathedrals towered among the surrounding 2-bedroom, 3-storey urban buildings, as the present abode of God. The complex construction of the Cathedral, helped to overcome the massive walls of the Romanesque period, to facilitate and to raise the vaults at an inaccessible height above. High light the main nave and the dark side of the gallery give the impression of infinite space. Inside cathedrals were filled with various decorative elements that reflect the religious ideas, spirituality, the fantastic grotesque. Often in the design of ispolzovalsya of urban life, popular scenes, various floral reliefs and patterns. Large stained glass Windows represent pictures with bright blue, yellow and red glass, depicting scenes from the Bible.
The stages of development of the Gothic style in the UK
The Gothic style originated in France and spread from there to Europe. The development of the Gothic style in the UK can be divided into three stages. They do not completely coincide with periods of Gothic architecture on the continent. Each period began with the appearance on British soil of any borrowed features French Gothic and transform it in accordance with the architectural traditions of the UK.
The first step in the development of English Gothic is considered to be 1170 a year – the beginning of construction of Canterbury Cathedral. It was headed by a French architect. In the work he used elements of French Gothic cathedrals of Saint-Denis, Sansa, etc. So the style of the first phase was repeated in French. Example of borrowing is French samples and the Cathedral in York. But soon, there have been changes. Increased thickness of the walls, and complicated support constructions. Following the Cathedral, built in this style was the Cathedral in Lincoln. and then Salisbury . In the West of England and in Wales have developed a distinctive Gothic style, which represent the Cathedral in Wales, Worcester and the Abbey Church at Glastonbury.
The Cathedral in Exeter
The second period begins in 1240, with restorations of Westminster Abbey, and the construction of the Cathedral in Exeter from 1275 to 1375. It is called “decorated Gothic” close to “flaming Gothic” on the continent. The style is softer, more beautiful and decorative.
The third period is characterized by the appearance adorns the building perpendicular lines. Although it dates back to “radiant” style in France, but still less than others were influenced by the continental Gothic, and is an independent English Gothic style. The third period was the longest. It lasted from 1330 to 1530 for years. Striking examples of perpendicular Gothic architecture can be found in the Cathedral in Gloucester and rebuilt in the 14th century the Central naves of Winchester and Canterbury cathedrals.
Gothic architecture of great Britain is not only cathedrals and castles, but preserved since the middle ages, old houses in the decorations of the walls and Windows of which still retains the Gothic style.