UK attractions: Gothic architecture
The Gothic style appeared in the second half of the 12th century in Western and Central Europe, where the dominant Catholic religion. The term was introduced during the Renaissance, to…

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Gothic cathedrals: Cathedral of St. Vitus Cathedral and St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna
I'm not an architect and don't know many details, but in this article I will try to convey their impressions of Gothic architecture on the example of two cathedrals. It…

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The bridges of antiquity

The first wooden bridges were built across the moat at Nicholas, and the Saviour of the Constantine-Helena gates(this was Bashkatova travel)and through the same ditch (with a width of about 16 m and depth from 4 to 8 meters)excavated in the 16th century by the Eastern wall of China-town. Derevyannye were the first bridges of the rivers Neglinnaya, Yauza.

One of the oldest stone bridges of Moscow,which has been preserved to our time across the river the River,was built of brick,with arched passages and connects the Trinity gates of the Kremlin to the bypass the Barbican Kutafia(bridgehead tower defense).The bridge is notable for the fact that,initially, he had no conventional bearings vodorosli or vaults.Moscow historian I. Zabelin believed that the Trinity bridge of stone was built in 1367г. Now the bridge crosses the Alexandrovsky garden and stand on a dry place.

Over the Moscow river in the whole history of the city until the 19th century was built only one stone bridge, which existed from 1692 to 1859. when it was dismantled and renamed to metal,three-span first, and then in 1937. single-span, retaining, however, the name of the Large stone.

From the capital construction of a bridge over the Moscow river for a long time held the danger of invasion of enemy troops from the South, where the river was a natural defensive lines.Only in the XVII century. when the danger had passed, and the population of Zamosvorechye significantly increased, instead of fords, temporary floating or wooden piling bridges need long-lasting reliable bridge.

Great stone bridge – one of the most renowned and significant buildings in Russia of that time, contemporaries called it the eighth wonder of the world.

Besides a Large Stone, in Moscow were built on other rivers and ravines and other stone bridges. At the end of the eighteenth century Kitai-Gorod was connected to the Kremlin by two stone bridges – Spassky and Nikolsky. At Neglinnaya in the eighteenth century there was another stone bridge.

Before our time preserved the Palace bridge (Lefortovo), who later Kuznetsk, in 1777, was built by the same architect Semyon Yakovlev across the Yauza river in Lefortovo constructed then from the Catherine Palace in German quarter.

White city had five stone bridges: Barbarian, Elijah, St. Nicholas, resurrection and Trinity. And stone Kuznetsk bridge.

From the time of Catherine II until the present time remained Rostokinskiy aqueduct – the most significant in size, monumental, laconic architectural edifice of stone in the late 18th century. In his appearance clearly shows the influence of the Roman bridge arcades. The aqueduct served to supply drinking water to Moscow by gravity. The length of the brick bridge is 356 meters.

Tsaritsyno bridge-original bridge built in 1775-1785гг. the complex structures of a country summer residence of Catherine the great. Preserved and is still in use today.

In the center of the capital.

The main group of modern bridge in Moscow, mainly in the city centre, and the most significant in size and role in the system of transport structures built in the Soviet era, between 1936-1939.

The construction within three years of the large bridges over the Moscow river was a large complex job. They are built in conjunction with the General plan of the city and its transport needs. New bridges were built to improve communication between the areas located on both sides of the Moscow river, and to provide through-passage along the Moscow river large Volga vessels. They are located approximately on the site of the old left of the nineteenth century:

in 1829. – Large Stone bridge with three-span stone arched supports and a metal span structures to replace ramshackle stone bridge;

in 1861. – Dorogomilov bridge with three latticed, metallic spans; in 1913. it was replaced a three-span arched bridge Borodino;

in 1871. – Krasnokholmsky bridge with two truss spans;

in 1874. – The Crimean bridge – with two lattice structures metal beam spans 64 m;

in 1881. – Ustinsky three-span bridge with metal arch spans;

in 1911. – Novospassky, a three-span, too, with the same dimensions spans.

Instead of seven old, was built on the Moscow river, five new bridges. The main difference in the architecture and design of new bridges that each of them crosses the river by one span. Four arched bridge made with riding on top. Of the five bridges four metal: three arched (Great Stone bridge, the Big Ustinsky and Big krasnokholmskiy) and one hanging (the Crimean). Fourth arch bridge – reinforced concrete (Moskvoretskaya).

A big Stone bridge raised on the continued direction of the street the Big Clearing, crosses the Moscow river at an angle and comes out of the left-Bank ramp approach to the Alexander garden opposite the old building of the State library. V. I. Lenin.

The bridge piers are faced with grey granite from robotropolis surface. Thus, the bridge, and the only structures of his time – riveted metal and concrete, took on the appearance of conforming to its name, the Stone bridge.

The big Ustinsky bridge was built in 1938. Saves the name of the old bridge. Single-span bridge, located near the confluence of the Yauza river in the Moscow river and connects the street Sadovnicheskaya (Osipenko) with Yauzsky Boulevard.

Maly Ustinsky Bridge was built in the same year. Interesting because the facade of the bridge by the Moscow river long facade facing the river Yauza, which gives the bridge a trapezoid shape.

Big Krasnokholmsky bridge has the largest span bridge in Moscow. At the same time, it is the most significant link in the chain of complex engineering structures at the site of the Garden ring between the squares of Paveletsky and Kursky stations. Later were built the tunnel, cutting across the top of the red hill under Taganskaya square, under the flyover of the Ulyanovsk street and Wysokowski three-span bridge over the Yauza. Construction of the superstructure consists of seven sickle-shaped metal arches.

Maly Krasnokholmsky bridge is a natural extension of Big krasnokholmskiy bridge Sleek bridge is the ornament of a Drainage channel in its lower reaches.

Crimean bridge – now the only example of city bridge in Moscow with low ride. In it the roadway and pedestrian walkways placed at the bottom of the supporting structure, suspended by vertical rods to a chain bridge. The bridge is located on the Garden ring, between the Crimean area and the main entrance to Gorky Park.Gorky. The total weight of the bridge 10 kt.

Moskvoretsky bridge was the only in the group of large bridges whose centre is built of reinforced concrete. It connects Red square with the Pyatnitskaya and Ordynka street in Zamoskvorechye. The facades of the bridge are lined with pure otechny pink granite, close in color to brick walls and towers of the Kremlin.

General plan of reconstruction of Moscow was planned not only the construction of new major bridges and renovation of existing.

The first of these in the late 40-ies has been updated Novospassky bridge, built in 1883. Its river spans were raised to 2.76 m and covered with steel arches, constructed coastal spans, approach ramps and stair assemblies. River design of the bridge has remained the same. The bridge width is also preserved. Total length with new approaches 500 m.

Other reconstructed bridge was an Iron bridge across the Vodootvodny canal near Kadashevskaya embankment. Connects Balchug street and St. Paraskevi. Although during the reconstruction of the cast iron spans of the arch bridge, built in 1835. were replaced by reinforced concrete, the bridge has preserved the old name.

Nearby is the Commissariat of the bridge, whose construction was started in 1927. The bridge was put into operation only in the mid 60-ies.

From among the bridges of the pre-revolutionary time the last was built in 1913. Borodino. A bridge connecting two different scenery of the shores, the architect (R. I. Klein) connected in one building the different architectural themes: over a flat beach and low (then) buildings – two obelisks, and at the foot of the high Bank and the city’s buildings is the colonnade, which is enough power for accent in a complex landscape.

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