In the history of the development of water supply systems of Roman aqueducts have a special place. Their extant remains indicate not only the Majesty and power of Ancient Rome, but also about the ancient world to the highest level of development of engineering thought.
The largest city of the ancient (by modern estimates, in the period of the Empire its population was from 600 thousand to 2 million people), also located in the hills, could not have developed water supply system. In it there were 11 aqueducts. First is Appies, named in honour of directing this project censor, Appius Claudius, was built in 312 BC and had a length of over 16 kilometers. The second aqueduct, built 40 years later, had a length of 70 kilometers! Same size there was also a third, Marziev, water. The total length of the Roman aqueducts was 436 km, 55 km – bridge structures. They delivered to the city, famous for its fountains and baths (Terme), from 700 thousand to 1 million cubic meters of water per day (according to some estimates – up to 1.5 million cubic meters). Such a large consumption of water may seem prohibitive, but you need to keep in mind that the ancient Romans did not know of valves, and the water in the system flowed continuously, obespechivayut sewage. Continue reading
I’m not an architect and don’t know many details, but in this article I will try to convey their impressions of Gothic architecture on the example of two cathedrals. It is with the Cathedral of St. Vitus and Stefan began my acquaintance with the Gothic.
Gothic replaced the classical (Roman) architecture. At first she was treated with disdain and where did the word Gothic (with Italian language Gotica translated as unusual or barbaric). But gradually this trend in architecture was gaining popularity. The oldest Gothic Church is the Notre Dame Cathedral (Notre Dame de Paris).
The main difference from Gothic classics is the use of the frame, where the entire structure is kept for special support, which, firstly, has ceased to be a part of the wall of the building, and secondly, are lighter than the massive columns of the Romanesque style. This design allowed us to increase the size of the building, especially in height. Continue reading
Ancient wonders of Baalbek — the legacy of biblical characters. Lebanese Arabs believe that their country is the history of the ancient city of Baalbek. The complex of temples at Baalbek were built and rebuilt over almost 2000 years, so it’s not only the history of Lebanon. Baalbek embodies the history of the Ancient world. Baalbek is considered so ancient that tradition is credited with its construction Cain, son of Adam. Cain found shelter here after because of envy killed his brother Abel and was cursed by fratricide by God Yahweh. According to another legend, Baalbek was built by Nimrod — one of the biblical kings, and in this matter he was helped by the giants.
Baalbek — a live embodiment of history. Baalbek is one and a half hour drive from the Lebanese capital. The first written mention of the city dates back to the XIV century BC when the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten erected a temple of the Sun God. In Phoenician times the city served as a sanctuary where they worshipped the Supreme God Baal (hence the name Baalbek). In 332 BC Alexander the great conquered Phoenicia and Baalbek included in the composition of his powerful state. Continue reading