India can be considered the third time a great civilization appeared on Earth (after Egypt and Mesopotamia ). But I immediately had to amend this statement, because in reality it is possible that it is the most ancient of civilizations, its study has just begun. As you probably already understood that civilization begin in the mouths of great rivers. In this case the Indus river (and the river luni, which is now lost in the Sands, and in those days formed a very powerful mouth and fell into the Indian ocean). And not only the Indus and the luni. This area is called Punjab – five rivers, once flowed here, three major rivers, from which there would be little.
By the way, the Indus was called actually Sindhu, but the Persians, from whom we learned about the existence of India, are unable to pronounce “with” in the beginning and started calling it “Hindu”. Greeks, taking the word from the Persians, and did cut it down to Indus. Continue reading
The first Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Martin in Utrecht was built in the VI century. Where exactly was located in the city’s Cathedral, is unknown, and he was quickly destroyed in the wars. Several buildings have succeeded each other before in the XII century began the construction of the present St. Martin’s Cathedral – the Duomo. Cathedral Domkerk (Domkerk) in Utrecht was, probably, quite majestic, if there was a full. But one tower (1382, height 110 m) very powerfully above the city flies, specifically rises and forms the image of the city.
Dome Cathedral of St. Martin in the city of Utrecht is one of the Gothic cathedrals of the Netherlands. First built choruses, and for those over 60 years – the famous tower. The tower became the symbol of the city.
To the top (465 steps) you can climb, to see 50 of the bells (the largest Carillon of Europe, made by Hemony in the XVII century, the largest bell was 9.8 tonnes and a diameter of 2.7 m), and the top in good weather and with binoculars to see one side of the roof of the Amsterdam Arena and the bell tower of ‘ s-Hertogenbosch! That is, Continue reading
I’m not an architect and don’t know many details, but in this article I will try to convey their impressions of Gothic architecture on the example of two cathedrals. It is with the Cathedral of St. Vitus and Stefan began my acquaintance with the Gothic.
Gothic replaced the classical (Roman) architecture. At first she was treated with disdain and where did the word Gothic (with Italian language Gotica translated as unusual or barbaric). But gradually this trend in architecture was gaining popularity. The oldest Gothic Church is the Notre Dame Cathedral (Notre Dame de Paris).
The main difference from Gothic classics is the use of the frame, where the entire structure is kept for special support, which, firstly, has ceased to be a part of the wall of the building, and secondly, are lighter than the massive columns of the Romanesque style. This design allowed us to increase the size of the building, especially in height. Continue reading