The bridges of antiquity
The first wooden bridges were built across the moat at Nicholas, and the Saviour of the Constantine-Helena gates(this was Bashkatova travel)and through the same ditch (with a width of about…

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The appearance of the cathedrals of the Gothic style
The spirit of the age, Bernard of Clairvaux and Thomas Aquinas most clearly expressed in the architecture of XII—XIII centuries Then formed a new architectural style, later called Gothic. Gothic…

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development

Trench method of construction of underground structures

When the trench method otkatyvaetsya pit and conventional methods the Future is being built underground structure.

After completion, the pit is filled with soil. When using this method provides the most favorable conditions for the placement of concrete, an arrangement of exterior waterproofing. Construction loads on the enclosing structure in this method of construction not exceeding! operational.

A disadvantage of the trench method is the need to reserve a considerable surface area for the contours of the constructed facility when satkoski walls of the pit for stable slope angles or bracing of the vertical walls. This fact generally limits the use of trench method depth of 5. 7 M. Continue reading

The interior of Reims Cathedral

Gothic architecture — the period of development of Western European and Central European architecture, appropriate Mature and late middle Ages (late twelfth to early sixteenth century). Gothic architecture replaced the Romanesque architecture of the era and in turn gave way to the architecture of the Renaissance period .

In the second half of the tenth century came to an end the debilitating forces of Europe it is time for military confrontation with the Normans and the Magyars. France resumed the construction of abbeys and monasteries, serving in the main centers of knowledge and education.

Romanesque and Gothic architecture was impossible without architectural predecessors ‘ experience and their accumulated mathematical knowledge. The geometrical proportions prevailed thanks to the authority of scholars of Arabic Spain and of the ancient mathematicians, whose works are actively translated in medieval France. The geometry of the imaginations of medieval artists as a universal means of understanding and modelling the universe. Continue reading

Underground architectural construction in Russia: review and experience inventory

1. The inventory of artificial caves and underground architectural structures for the CIS and Baltic States (former USSR).

Russian Society Spelestological Research (ROSI) is working on the Inventory of artificial caves and underground architectural constructions on the territory of CIS and Baltic States (former USSR).

The idea of the Cadastre belongs to M. Y. Cochino. The ideology inventory was developed and added to it Dolotov, Y. A., M. U. Sokhin, A. A. Parfenov (working Group of the Inventory). The development of computer databases has made J. A. Dolotov.

Materials for Cadastre also provided: N.E. Pudovkin (Samara), K. K. Pronin, L. N. The wind, Acting Greek (Odessa), A. G. Kovalev (Kharkov), A. Bobrovsky (Kiev), and other SPELESTOLOGY. Currently information is collected about 2500 objects. Continue reading