The Windows were inserted colored glass, depicting saints and scenes from sacred history, legends, emblems and patterns. Glasses these kind of mosaic, made of carved according to the requirements of the pattern pieces, connected together by lead strips.
The inside of Gothic churches in regard to the beauty and sublimity not inferior to their physical appearance. High space ships, visible one after the other, slender pilasters, patterned on triforia, huge Windows with curly weaves — it all makes a big impression. Lancet arc vast arches supported or not on a square massive pillars and pilasters of slender from the bundles of thin columns. Originally the pilasters were thick cylinders made of pieces of stone lying horizontally on each other; but then, for these pieces do not slide one with the other and better endured the pressure of the arches, as well as for beauty, invented to furnish pilasters with thin columns of stone monoliths, in the amount of eight: four, thicker and called “senior service columns” (alte Dienste) were placed crosswise around the pilasters; in the intervals between them were placed four more slim or “Junior service” column ( Junge Dienste). This new form of pillars connects the separate parts under the General column. The introduction of naturalistic interpreted ListView medieval ornamentation is one of the major innovations of Gothic style. Thus the imitation of nature, favoured grass and the kidneys. Continue reading
The oldest stories on Earth tell us that humanity originated in one place and settled on the planet after happy lost his ancestral home. Different cultures call it differently: Hellenistic biblical Paradise or Eden. Modern scientists arguing about where was the first center of civilization, from stretched filaments of consanguinity linking the most remote peoples. Called Central Africa, and even Asia. To The Extreme North. However, in the main, researchers agree that the culture of antiquity is similar to the flames, as if blown by the wind to different parts of the Earth from one fire.
The main part of time in history every civilization has focused its attention on the development of certain areas of culture. So, the Romans created the most perfect law, which formed the basis of modern law. None of the administrative apparatus in the world could not compete with the extensive bureaucratic hierarchy of China. For a long time, astronomical calculations of the Maya had no equal among the peoples of the Old world. The nomadic tribes of the great steppe has created an outstanding movement system, allowing in the shortest possible time to throw masses of people and livestock over long distances. No civilization has tried to cover all areas of life at once. But it was not always so. Continue reading
In the history of the development of water supply systems of Roman aqueducts have a special place. Their extant remains indicate not only the Majesty and power of Ancient Rome, but also about the ancient world to the highest level of development of engineering thought.
The largest city of the ancient (by modern estimates, in the period of the Empire its population was from 600 thousand to 2 million people), also located in the hills, could not have developed water supply system. In it there were 11 aqueducts. First is Appies, named in honour of directing this project censor, Appius Claudius, was built in 312 BC and had a length of over 16 kilometers. The second aqueduct, built 40 years later, had a length of 70 kilometers! Same size there was also a third, Marziev, water. The total length of the Roman aqueducts was 436 km, 55 km – bridge structures. They delivered to the city, famous for its fountains and baths (Terme), from 700 thousand to 1 million cubic meters of water per day (according to some estimates – up to 1.5 million cubic meters). Such a large consumption of water may seem prohibitive, but you need to keep in mind that the ancient Romans did not know of valves, and the water in the system flowed continuously, obespechivayut sewage. Continue reading